However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then.
Introduction to the Atmosphere Summary of the Chapter This chapter introduces the student to the study of climatology and meteorology.
The chapter begins with an examination of the composition and structure of the atmosphere. According to temperature change with altitude, seven different layers can be identified in the atmosphere. The lowest layer, the troposphere, extends from the surface to a height of 11 kilometers.
This layer contains the majority of the atmosphere's mass and is the location for most of the Earth's weather. Characteristics of the other six layers are described in detail. Ozone is concentrated in a layer that extends from 15 to 55 kilometers above the Earth's surface.
Ozone is important to life because it absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Recent investigations of the ozone layer have discovered areas of severe thinning located primarily at the South Pole.
Researchers have determined that this thinning is caused by the emission of the artificially produced chemical chlorofluorocarbon into our atmosphere. Several gases found in the atmosphere have the ability to absorb infrared radiation from the Earth's surface and atmosphere giving rise to the greenhouse effect.
The greenhouse effect aids in the heating of the Earth's atmosphere and surface. Without it, the average temperature of the planet would be 33 degrees Celsius colder. Three important gases involved in the greenhouse effect process are methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. The concentration of these gases in our atmosphere has been increasing since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution primarily because of the burning of fossil fuels.
Other gases involved in the greenhouse effect include: A number of factors can influence the intensity of the solar radiation received at the Earth's surface.
In the previous chapter 6. Matter and Energywe discovered that the Sun can vary in its output of radiation and that a variety of geometrical relationships between the Earth and the Sun have considerable effect on the intensity and duration of incoming solar radiation.
As the solar radiation passes through the Earth's atmosphere the processes of scattering, absorption, and reflection can also reduce the intensity of the shortwave beam.
The shortwave energy received by the Earth is balanced by a similar quantity of longwave radiation leaving back to space. This process is called the planetary energy balance.
In this chapter, models of global shortwave and longwave dynamics were developed. Latitudinally, amounts of incoming shortwave and outgoing longwave radiation are not balanced. From 30 degrees North to 30 degrees South incoming shortwave radiation exceeds outgoing terrestrial radiation creating a surplus of energy at these latitudes.
At latitudes 30 to 90 degrees North and South the reverse holds true and these regions have a deficit of energy. Several systems, like oceanic and atmospheric circulation, act to redistribute the surplus of energy at the tropics to the middle and high latitudes.
Radiation energy absorbed at the Earth's surface or within its atmosphere is normally converted into a number of different forms of energy and used in a variety of natural processes. One important conversion involves the creation of heat energy that is used to warm the Earth's surface and atmosphere.
The generation of heat energy is strongly correlated to the quantity of shortwave radiation received. As discussed earlier, the amount of insolation being received by a location on the Earth varies both spatially and temporally because of Sun-Earth geometry, Earth rotation, and spatial differences in the Earth's atmospheric transparency.
Temperature can be defined as the intensity or degree of hotness of a body. A number of measurement scales have been invented to measure temperature.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution is interacting with other socio-economic and demographic factors to create a perfect storm of business model change in all industries, resulting in . The Industrial Revolution in Europe chapter of this European History Study Guide course is the most efficient way to study the Industrial. So far, I really like this study guide. It is an easy read and short and to the point. I struggle understanding and comprehending text books, but this book is perfect for my comprehensive reading abilities.
Heat is a measure of the quantity of heat energy present in a body. The heat contained in a body depends not only on its temperature but also its mass. Daily and annual fluctuations in temperature at the Earth's various locations is caused by variations in the input and output of net radiation.
Spatial and temporal patterns of temperature are also influenced by factors like altitude, ocean currents, and surface properties. Wind can be simply defined as air in motion. Air moves above the Earth's surface because of spatial differences in the density of the atmosphere.
Newton's laws of motion suggest that wind should blow from areas of high density to areas of low density. We can measure the density of the air through atmospheric pressure. The speed of wind is controlled by pressure gradient force. Pressure gradient force can be simply described as the rate of pressure change pressure gradient over space.View Test Prep - Industrial Revolution Study Guide from HISTORY at Belleview High School.
Industrial Revolution Test Study Guide Past AICE Exam questions (at least 4 . 1 Introduction. The purpose of this book is to provide relevant material for each subject in O-level education here in Tanzania.
The first edition contains civics, history, geography, biology, chemistry and . The Industrial Revolution in Europe chapter of this European History Study Guide course is the most efficient way to study the Industrial. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Russian Revolution (–) Study Guide has everything you .
Kdown is income direct and diffuse solar radiation or insolation..
Kup is shortwave radiation reflected from the Earth's surface back to space.. Ldown is counter-radiation because of the greenhouse effect.. Lup is the emission of longwave radiation from the Earth's surface back to space. How did the conditions created by the Industrial Revolution change the way people saw the world?
Definition The conditions changed the way people saw the world by the new inevntions that were invented peopel started to use and inevnt more efficient ways to better their society.