Health midterm review sex rape and pregnancy

Replaces Committee Opinion NumberAugust Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. Reproductive-aged victims of sexual assault are at risk of unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and mental health conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Health care providers should screen routinely for a history of sexual assault and offer victims both emergency contraception and sexually transmitted infection prophylaxis.

Health midterm review sex rape and pregnancy

Effects of obesity on pregnancy outcomes Rates of fetal anomalies are increased in obese mothers as well, including neural tube defects OR, 1.

A retrospective cohort study that included women who had undergone bariatric surgery found that women who had delivered children after surgery as compared with women who delivered before surgery had decreased rates of hypertension during pregnancy OR, 0.

However, obesity may also be related to some confounders such as more pregnancy complications, which also have negative effects on breastfeeding rates.

Sexual Assault

One study found that obese women had lower prolactin responses to suckling in the first week compared with normal-weight women. Previous Section Next Section Obesity and Depression Population-based studies looking at the association between obesity and depression have yielded inconsistent results, with only some finding an association.

Some studies found an association between obesity and higher rates of depression in women but not in men 7981 ; others reported inverse associations between obesity and depression in both women and men. One 5-year prospective study following a cohort of persons from Alameda County, CA, showed that the obese were at increased risk of depression prevalence: Thus, in communities where a higher weight is acceptable, less psychological impact is observed.

Another theory argues that obesity is not stressful per se, but the pressure to fit a norm and continued dieting leads to depression.

Obese women with cancer may have decreased survival because of later screening, comorbid illnesses, or poorer response to treatment. Obese women have increased surgical and possibly radiation complications.

In addition, there is no current consensus regarding appropriate chemotherapy dosing for the obese patient.

Consequences|Sexual Violence|Violence Prevention|Injury Center|CDC

In premenopausal women, anovulation or oligoovulation that is associated with PCOS results in an endometrium that is chronically exposed to unopposed estradiol. This causes proliferation and the potential for neoplastic changes.

Additionally, in premenopausal and postmenopausal obese women, increased insulin and androgens decrease the production of sex hormone—binding globulin. This leads to more and unregulated bioavailable estrogens in postmenopausal women.

In the International Agency for Research on Cancer found that there was convincing evidence based on large cohort and case-control studies that obesity is associated with a 2- to 3-fold risk in endometrial cancer.

This relationship may be because of decreased screening compliance among obese women. Obese white women may put off cervical cancer screening because of embarrassment or discomfort.

Physicians recommend Papanicolaou smears for obese women at the same rate as for normal weight women. In fact, hormone replacement therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in obese, postmenopausal women RR, 1. Obese women also have greater disease morbidity, including a higher recurrence rate, increased contralateral breast cancer, wound complications after breast surgery, and lymphedema.

Morbidly obese women are significantly less likely to report recent mammography. This is particularly true for white women.

Health midterm review sex rape and pregnancy

In addition, the hyperinsulinemia found in some obese women may promote mammary carcinogenesis by increasing the levels of insulin-like growth factor and leptin, which have a synergistic effect with estrogen on mammary epithelial cells by promoting angiogenesis.

In one large US study, cancer incidence and mortality data were compared between patients who had gastric bypass between and and morbidly obese persons who had not had surgery.

Rape and Date Rape

Therefore, efforts directed toward prevention of obesity might be more helpful than weight reduction in attempts to reduce the incidence of obesity-related cancer.

Clinicians should counsel all women about the broad negative effects of obesity and the importance of controlling weight to prevent negative outcomes.Abstract The American Public Health Association has asserted that all young people need the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to avoid HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unintended pregnancy so that they can become sexually healthy adults.

If pregnancy results from rape, the patient’s attitude toward the pregnancy and abortion should be determined, and if appropriate, the option of elective termination should be discussed.

Key Points Typically, rape is an expression of aggression, anger, or need for power; psychologically, it is more violent than sexual. The U.S. Department of Justice defines rape as “the penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.” 3 The federal government uses this legal definition to collect information from local police about rape.

The. Policy Brief 3: September Prevention and Response to Rape-Related Pregnancy By: Tonya Edmond, PhD, Heather Hollingsworth, MSW candidate, and Melissa Slator, BFA Review the prevalence and context of rape-related pregnancy in .

Date rape also is when one person forces another person to have sex. It, too, is a felony offense. The difference between rape and date rape is that the victim knows the attacker socially.

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Study Midterm Health flashcards from Heather A. on StudyBlue. Date rape drugs how to they affect memory? What are some characteristics of these drugs?

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colorless, odorless, tasteless loss of memory. Pregnancy or the capacity to become pregnant or to have children.

Idaho legislator says trauma prevents pregnancy in rape, incest victims | The Spokesman-Review