His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford.
By the early s computer manufacturers had begun to use semiconductor technology in commercial products, and both conventional batch-processing and time-sharing systems were in place in many large, technologically advanced companies. Host-to-host interactions were envisionedalong with access to specialized resources such as supercomputers and mass storage systems and interactive access by remote users to the computational powers of time-sharing systems located elsewhere.
It connected time-sharing computers at government-supported research sites, principally universities in the United Statesand it soon became a critical piece of infrastructure for the computer science research community in the United States. Tools and applications—such as the simple mail transfer protocol SMTP, commonly referred to as e-mailfor sending short messages, and the file transfer protocol FTPfor longer transmissions—quickly emerged.
In order to achieve cost-effective interactive communications between computers, which typically communicate in short bursts of data, ARPANET employed the new technology of packet switching.
Packet switching takes large messages or chunks of computer data and breaks them into smaller, manageable pieces known as packets that can travel independently over any available circuit to the target destination, where the pieces are reassembled.
Thus, unlike traditional voice communications, packet switching does not require a single dedicated circuit between each pair of users. Commercial packet networks were introduced in the s, but these were designed principally to provide efficient access to remote computers by dedicated terminals.
In the United States, Telenet and Tymnet were two such packet networks. Neither supported host-to-host communications; in the s this was still the province of the research networks, and it would remain so for many years.
The ground-based packet radio system provided mobile access to computing resources, while the packet satellite network connected the United States with several European countries and enabled connections with widely dispersed and remote regions.
With the introduction of packet radio, connecting a mobile terminal to a computer network became feasible. However, time-sharing systems were then still too large, unwieldy, and costly to be mobile or even to exist outside a climate-controlled computing environment.
A strong motivation thus existed to connect the packet radio network to ARPANET in order to allow mobile users with simple terminals to access the time-sharing systems for which they had authorization. These terminals, however, had to be connected to other networks in European countries in order to reach the end users.
Thus arose the need to connect the packet satellite net, as well as the packet radio net, with other networks. Foundation of the Internet The Internet resulted from the effort to connect various research networks in the United States and Europe.
In order for the concept to work, a new protocol had to be designed and developed; indeed, a system architecture was also required. In Vinton Cerfthen at Stanford University in California, and this author, then at DARPA, collaborated on a paper that first described such a protocol and system architecture—namely, the transmission control protocol TCPwhich enabled different types of machines on networks all over the world to route and assemble data packets.
Department of Defense in By the s other U. By the late s the network was operating at millions of bits per second. A few commercial networks also began in the late s; these were soon joined by others, and the Commercial Internet Exchange CIX was formed to allow transit traffic between commercial networks that otherwise would not have been allowed on the NSFNET backbone.
Inafter extensive review of the situation, NSF decided that support of the NSFNET infrastructure was no longer required, since many commercial providers were now willing and able to meet the needs of the research community, and its support was withdrawn.
Meanwhile, NSF had fostered a competitive collection of commercial Internet backbones connected to one another through so-called network access points NAPs. Today a loosely structured group of several thousand interested individuals known as the Internet Engineering Task Force participates in a grassroots development process for Internet standards.
Internet standards are maintained by the nonprofit Internet Society, an international body with headquarters in Reston, Virginia. Commercial expansion The rise of commercial Internet services and applications helped to fuel a rapid commercialization of the Internet.
This phenomenon was the result of several other factors as well. One important factor was the introduction of the personal computer and the workstation in the early s—a development that in turn was fueled by unprecedented progress in integrated circuit technology and an attendant rapid decline in computer prices.When it comes to writing an argumentative paper, turn to this article to find and select one of the most recommended ideas that every teacher will appreciate.
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.
U.S. Constitution Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens.
Citizens are expected to understand the rules that our government has presented to us, abide by these rules for our own well being and freedom, and serve our communities and government back.
Yet if digital technology has changed one thing above all else in the texture of our everyday lives, it is precisely the nature of our attention to the world and to the cultural artifacts within it. In the third essay, Hollander’s sense of the personal digital device as as a sort of technologically extended mind has important consequences.
The Impact of Social Media on Children and Adolescents Essay example adopted internet and other media into our daily lives, there are so many debates and commentaries on the impacts of these new media on the social relations and activities of the young generations.
Dec 17, · The Year of Outrage Slate tracked what everyone was outraged about every day in Explore by clicking the tiles below, and then scroll down to read about how outrage has taken over our lives.