Du Bois introduced the concept of a "psychological wage" for white laborers.
Cross Lest we condemn another generation of urban children to being taught by teachers who do not understand them, we must focus on problems of race through ongoing staff development. At the School of Education where I teach, our mission is to prepare teachers to work in urban schools with a racially diverse student population.
Our students, however, are predominantly Anglo, female, and monolingual. Many of them attended private, religiously affiliated elementary and secondary schools whose student populations were homogeneous.
They live in predominantly white suburbs, and they come from primarily middle-class socioeconomic backgrounds. As an African-American woman, I take teaching about racism and improving race relations very seriously.
To help my students explore and understand the dynamics of urban schools and racism, I use a variety of methods including small groups, lectures, readings, class discussions, student journals, individual conferences, videotape analyses, group research projects, and field experiences in urban schools.
Discomfort About Race When I started teaching this course last semester, students showed discomfort in talking about their experiences, feelings, and beliefs about racial differences. Some told me they were reluctant to share their thoughts with me because I am African-American.
They were worried they might cross some invisible boundary and offend me. I work hard to maintain an open environment for discussing race relations, but have not always been successful.
I vividly recall a male student walking out of the classroom. He could not bear to consider the possibility that the white middle class perpetuates racism. Although he returned after 15 minutes and was applauded by his classmates for doing so, he participated very little in the remainder of the class session.
As the semester went on, it became clear to me that a single course to understand an issue like racism and its connection to classroom practices was inadequate.
The course methods and content were not turning my students into urban teachers who had commitments to improving race relations. I could tell from their journal entries and class discussions that the students were drawing conclusions from their field experiences that confirmed their prejudices and misconceptions about urban schools and children.
This worried me as I contrasted these comments with those they made prior to the field experience. I began to wonder whether this semester of work to make my students more racially aware had actually resulted in their being less racially tolerant. Professional Ambivalence I become more discouraged when I realize that my peers in teacher education are ambivalent about our roles in preparing teachers with a commitment to improving race relations.
These views are distinguished by whether or not a commitment to the special knowledge, skills, attitudes, and contextual demands of urban teaching is important for preparing teachers!
My experience with my students and suspicion of this description caused me to question whether either coursework or field experience is an adequate way to prepare teachers who will be predisposed to improve race relations.
And simply putting academic content and field experience together is not enough. Even though I built in more time than I originally planned to conduct individual conferences about field experiences, my efforts still seemed inadequate.
These future teachers need ongoing professional development that is systematic and focused on problems of racism. They need additional means beyond college classes to examine their values, beliefs, and prejudices. Without this continued systematic examination, I fear we will be condemning another generation of urban children to being taught by teachers who often do not understand them.
I cannot think of education apart from its connection to improving race relations and thus do not see alternatives to teacher educators being very purposeful and dedicated in dealing with racism while preparing teachers.
Our thoughts as teacher educators need to be transformed from thinking about what our programs should mean for future teachers to what they should mean for the students they will teach.
A Tale of Three Cities. Teacher Education Yearbook I, 9— Enter the periodical title within the "Get Permission" search field. To translate this article, contact permissions ascd.This article on the effects of desegregation on interracial attitu(des and behavior has three major objectives.
The implicit value goal of research on the effects of desegregation is a broad concern with social integration. If racial conflict and racial separatism effects of desegregation on race relations.
Such research can then be. 3 Although the effect of education on racial attitudes is not the focus of their analyses, Bobo (), Lopez (), and Hughes and Tuch () report non-significant education coefficients from various models of racial policy attitudes based on pooled samples of Whites, Asians, Hispanics, and Blacks.
Separate effects by race are not reported in . Race and Schools: The Need for Action By Gary Orfield, Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles, University of California–Los Angeles In a nation with 44 percent non-White students and extreme inequality in educational attainment, it's time we address these issues as seriously as we did during the Civil Rights era.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. This study of the Tennessee Voluntary Pre-K Program (VPK) is the first randomized control trial of a state pre-k program.
• Positive achievement effects at the end of pre-k reversed and began favoring the control children by 2 nd and 3 rd grade.. VPK participants had more disciplinary infractions and special education placements by 3 rd grade than control children. CHAPTER 17 The Foundations of Curriculum whether they attempt to preserve or reshape society, curriculum policymakers are inescapably involved in a political act, for their positions will have some bearing upon who gets what, when and how now and in the future.