Groups that are traditionally named are shown on the right; they form an "ascending series" per Clark, see aboveand several groups are paraphyletic:
Received Aug 7; Accepted Oct This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Table S1: Primary morphometric data and mating system designations 0. Data on oestrus length and inter-birth intervals 0. Description of phylogenetic tree topology 0.
The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates has been widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. Despite their importance to our understanding of primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and the evolutionary development of brain size is not well studied.
The present research examines the evolutionary relationship between brain size and two components of primate sexual selection, sperm competition and male competition for mates.
Results indicate that there is not a significant relationship between relative brain size and sperm competition as measured by relative testis size in primates, suggesting sperm competition has not played an important role in the evolution of brain size in the primate order.
There is, however, a significant negative evolutionary relationship between relative brain size and the level of male competition for mates. The present study shows that the largest relative brain sizes among primate species are associated with monogamous mating systems, suggesting primate monogamy may require greater social acuity and abilities of deception.
Introduction Since Darwin's publication  on the evolution of humans and sexual selection, reproductive competition among males has been considered a powerful force in the evolution of primates and other mammals.
The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates is widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history.
Despite their importance to understanding primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and brain size evolution is not well studied.
With the exception of whales, primate brain evolution is unique among mammals. For primates, the evolutionary increase in brain size is often attributed to increased social complexity. Research associating increasing brain size with increasing group size and social complexity in primates predicts brain size, specifically, the size of the neocortex, will co-evolve with mating systems exhibiting social complexity  — .
In this context, larger brains are selected for because they confer greater reproductive fitness associated with increased social acuity or the ability to manipulate others within the group .
Increases in the size of the prefrontal cortex in particular, which mediates important components of complex social behavior such as planning, working memory, memory for serial order, and language may have played an important role in human brain evolution . Recent research on mating systems and brain size in a closely related mammal, bats, predicts a negative evolutionary relationship between levels of sperm competition as measured by relative testes mass, and the development of brain size stemming from an investment trade-off between two metabolically costly tissues .
The results from that study indicated that while species with mating systems that include multiple copulations by males has no evolutionary impact on relative brain size, mating systems with multiple matings by females do influence brain size evolution.
Bat species with mating systems based on female promiscuity were associated with smaller brains and larger testes, while species with mating systems based on female fidelity were associated with significantly larger brains and smaller testicles .
The present research investigates the evolutionary relationship between brain size and two components of primate sexual selection in primates 1 sperm competition as measured by relative testes size, and 2 male competition for mates estimated from the level of sexual mass dimorphism.
Results Results from the analyses of covariance ANCOVA estimating the relationships of female promiscuity and mating system with brain size and testes size indicated mating system was associated significantly with brain size in primates after accounting for body mass, while female promiscuity was not Table 1.
After accounting for body mass, both mating system and female promiscuity were associated significantly with the level of sperm competition estimated from testes size.
Although male body mass was associated with male competition for mates as measured by mass dimorphism, mating system and female promiscuity were not.
This pattern of association remained unchanged when humans are excluded from the analysis.There's no single trait that defines all primates as a group, but these mammals do share some general features, such as eye sockets encircled by bone and binocular vision (an excellent adaptation for spotting prey, and predators, from a long way away).
Dec 20, · The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates is widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. Despite their importance to understanding primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and brain size evolution is not well studied.
While just percent of mammal deaths are caused by members of the same species, that rate rose to percent in the common ancestor of primates, and dropped slightly to percent in the.
Zoology Mammals and Primates. method of reproduction. What group of mammals have (a) embryos that spend more time feeding through the placenta than the mother’s nipples, (b) young that feed on milk, and (c) a prolonged period of maternal care after leaving the placenta?
-Use molecular analysis to look for the protein keratin. Primates in the suborder Strepsirrhini (non-tarsier prosimians) are able to synthesize vitamin C, like most other mammals, while primates of the suborder Haplorrhini (tarsiers, monkeys and apes) have lost this ability, and require the vitamin in their diet.
Many mammals exhibit this, such as primates (for example orangutans and spider monkeys), elephants, spotted hyenas, lions, and dolphins.  Solitary animals defend a territory and avoid social interactions with the members of its species, except during breeding season.